The East India Company and the Bengal Nawabs

Siraj ud Daula (1756-57)

  • He sieged the English factory at Kasimbazar. On 20th June 1756, Fort William surrendered but Robert Clive recovered Calcutta.
  • On 2nd January 1757, Treaty of Alinagar was signed, where by Siraj conceded practically all the demands.British then captured Chandernagore, the French settlement, on March 1757.
  • Battle of Plassey was fought on 23 June 1757. Owing to the conspiracy, the Nawab was defeated.
  • The following betrayed the Nawab:

    Mir Jafar- Mir Bakshi
    Manikchand- Officer in charge of Calcutta.
    Aminchand- Rich Sikh merchant
    Jagat Seth- Biggest banker of Bengal
    Khadim Khan- Commanded a large number of Nawab’s Troops

Mir Jafar (1757-60)

  • The Company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It received the Zamindari of 24 Parganas. Mir Jafar, however, fell into arrears and was forced to abdicate in favour of his son-in-la Mir Qasim

Mir Qasim (1760-64)

  • Mir Qasim ceded Burdwen, Midnapore and Chittagond. He shifted his capital form Musidabad to Monghyr.
  • Mir Qasim soon revolted as he was angry with the British for misusing the dastaks (free duty passes). However, having been defeated by the British, he fled to Awadh, where he formed a confederacy with Shuja-ud-daulah and Shah Alam.
  • Battle of Buxar (1764) Shuja-ud-daulah, Shah Alam and Mir Qasim were defeated by Munro.
  • Mir Jafar (1763) was again placed on the throne.

Nizam-ud-Daulah (1765-72)

  • On Mir Jafar’s death, his son Nizam-ud-daulah was placed on the throne and signed a treaty on 20th February, 1765 by which the Nawab was to disband most of his army and to administer Bengal through a Deputy Subahdar nominated by the company.
  • Clive concluded two sepeartae treaties of Allahabad with Shuja ud daula and Shah Alam II.
  • Dual system of government started in Bengal. The company acquired both Diwani and Nizamat rights from Najm-ud-Daula (1765-66), the new nawab of Bengal. But the company did not take over direct administration and revenue collection. Warren Hastings ended the Dual System of government in 1772.
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