Lala Lajpath Rai along with Madan Mohan Malavya founded the Nationalist Party
- Shivaji divided his territory under his rule (swaraj) into three provinces, each under a viceroy. Provinces were divided into prants which were subdivided into parganas or tarafs. The lowest unit was village headed by Headman or Patel.
- Shivaji was helped by ashtapradhan (eight ministers) which was unlike a council of ministers, for there was no collective responsibilty; each minister was directly