Lala Lajpath Rai along with Madan Mohan Malavya founded the Nationalist Party
- First war (1839-42). Arose because the British (Lord Auckland) wanted to replace Dost Muhammad with a puppet ruler, Shah Shuja.
- The British faced a popular revolt but were able to re-occupy Kabul. However, they had to restore the throne to Dost Muhammad.
- Second War (1878-80). Afghan ruler, Sher Ali, was defeated by Lord Lytton and his son signed the Treaty of Gandamak. A British resident was kept in kabul. After he was killed, British adopted the principle of non interference.