The Swarajists emerged as a reaction to the Gandhian programme of post-non cooperation period. They split away in 193 at the Gaya Session of AICC. They advanced the programme of carrying non-cooperation within the legislature.
Emergence of Swarajists manifested the aspirations in nationalist ranks. Non-cooperation aroused heady enthusiasm and high hopes. Its abrupt suspension was a rude jolt to some nationalists like Motilal Nehru and CR Das. When Congress endorsed the suspension of political action and pursuance of Gandhian Constructive Work, their hopes were belied. With the rejection of their proposal for taking part in elections, they formed a separate group.
The Swarajists goal was to enforce deadlock in the Councils enforcing the government to concede reforms. Their demands were indicated in a publication in February 1923. The immediate demand was speedy attainment of dominion status including the right to frame a constitution with provincial autonomy implying control over bureaucracy.
The Swarajist action kept the spirit of resistance, saved the Indians from political demoralisation and disorganisation. They carried on the non-cooperation effectively form the platform of legislature. They didn’t oppose congress or Gandhi rather prevented its political activity from coming to a stand still.