The growth of nationalism in India was accompanied by the growth of social and political organisations. It was an outcome of total impact of British rule and its concomitant policies. The impact of western education and its liberating influence coupled with social regeneration worked as the motive forces.
Raja Rammohan Roy founded the base of nationalism in India. He protested against restrictions on the press and demanded employment of Indian to high posts.
In 1838, Zamindari Association was formed in Bengal. It cooperated with the British Indian Society, founded in London. The Bengal British India Association formed in 1843, merged with Zamindari Association to form British Indian Associations. It asked for separate legislature of popular character, separation of judiciary from executive and reduction of salaries of higher officers.
By 1870, a new elite class emerged due to spread of Western education. In 1875, Sisir Ghose founded India League to stimulate nationalism and encourage political education. Anand Mohan Bose and Surendranath Banarjee tried to make their Indian Association (1876) mass based. It organized all India agitations against Lytton’s unpopular measures.
Bombay Association, considering the Britishers as outright evil, emerged. It was led by Tayabji, KT Teland, and Feroz Shah Mehta. Surendranath Banerjee tried to make work of various associations in concert. In 1866, East India Association was founded in London with branches in Bombay and Calcutta, aiming at welfare of Indians.
In 1879, Licence Tax and Cotton Duties united all organisations. During 1883-84 unity became permanent. The Indian Association, the British India Association and other various groups worked together to call themselves the National Conference.
Ripon’s departure evoked a demonstration in which there was a spirit of unified India. Thus, the state was set for the foundation of Congress in 1885.