Parliamentary system Government in India
- President as Head of State and the National Executive: President of India is the head of State. He is chief executive of India. However, he is only a nominal executive. All the powers are exercised in his name. A nominal executive is one in whose name powers are exercised. He himself dons not exercise these. President of India is the Nomianl Executive. Theoretically, the Prime Minister and all other ministers are advisors to the president. The president always act in accordance with its advice. Prime minister and the Council of Ministers constitute the real executive. It used all the powers of the President.
- Prime Minister as the Head of Government and real centre of power: Prime Minister is the real centre of power in India. He is the leader of the majority in Loksabha. The President formally appoints him. Prime Minister is the real maker of the Council of Ministers. The President upon the advice of the Prime Minister appoints all members.
- Prime Minister as the Captain of council of ministers: The Council of Ministers works under the leadership, direction and control of the Prime Minister. No one can become or remain a minister without the consent of the Prime minister. Any minister who disagrees with the Prime Minister has to resign and quit the ministry. The Prime minster can ask any minister to resign. When the Prime minister resigns, it is taken to be the resignation of entire Council of Ministers.
- Cabinet as the powerful policy- making body: cabinet is the most important part of the Council of Minsiters. It consists of around 20 cabinet ministers. The senior most ministers who are in charge of major departments of government. The cabinet makes all the policies and decisions of the Government. The prime minister directs and controls its working. He is the capitain of the Cabinet.
- Close relationship between the Parliament and the Council of Minister: Each minister is essentially a member of the either house of Union Pariliament. If any non member becomes a minister, he has to become a Member of Parliament(MP) with in six months. In case of the failure to do so, he has to quit his ministership. The council of Ministers and the Parliament always work together. Ministers as members of the parliament actively participate in its working. They take full part in law making.
- Ministerial Responsibility: A very distinctive and important feature of our Parliamentary government of the principle of ministerial responsibility. The council of ministers is responsible before the Parliament for all its activities and decisions. Ministerial Responsibility has three main aspects. Indian Council of Ministers is fully responsible before the Union Parliament.
- Ministers responsibility for all the acts of the President: the council of Ministers is responsible for all the decisions and actions of the president. The president always acts on the advice of the Prime Minister and the council of ministers. Prime minister is the chief adviser of the President. Every decision of the President is really the decision of decision of the Council of Ministers. It is therefore responsible for all the decisions and actions of the President.
- Individual Responsibility of each Minister: Each Minister is the head of the one or few departments. The concerned minister is responsible for the working of his department. In case anything wrong happens in his department, the minister of accountable before the parliament. The Parliament has the power to pass a vote of no confidence or a censure motion against him. In this event the concerned minister has to tender his resignation. In case he refuses to do so the Prime Minister can get him removed by the President of India.
- Collective responsibility of the council of ministers: the council of ministers is collectively responsible before the Parliament, in fact before the Loksabha. In case the Loksabha rejects any law or policy or decision or budget proposal made by the ministry, it is taken to be a vote of confidence against the entire Council of Ministers. In this event the council of ministers resigns and goes out of office. Likewise, when the Loksabha passes a direct vote of no confidence against the prime minister, it also means a lack of confidence in it. This also leads to the resignation of the entire Council of Ministers. This system is called collective responsibility of the ministry before the Parliament.
- Continuous control of Parliament over the council of Ministers: the Parliament has the means to continuously supervise and control the working of the Council of Ministers. The members of the Parliament can put questions to the ministers, which have to be essentially answered by them. MPs can seek any information or report from the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers depends upon the Parliament for getting passed all necessary laws. The finances of the country are under the control of the Parliament. The Council of Ministers cannot spend any money or levy or collect any tax without the approval of the Parliament.
# Parliamentary system Government in India
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