- The fundamental Duties of citizens were added by the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976. The ten Fundamental Duties which are given in Article 51A of the Constitution can be classified as either duties towards self, duties concerning the environment, duties towards the State and duties towards the nation.
- The 11th Fundamental Duty, which states that every citizen ‘who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case maybe, ward between the age of six and fourteen years’ was added by the 86th constitutional amendment in 2002.
Fundamental duties are
(1) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.
(2) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom.
(3) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
(4) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so
(5) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
(6) to value and presence the rich heritage of our composite culture.
(7) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures.
(8) to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform.
(9) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence.
(10) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement.
(11) every citizen ‘who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.
# Fundamental Duties
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