The failure of moderate politics and programmes gave rise to leaning towards a radical and extremist approach. This crystallized in the formation of a new group that dominated the Indian political scene form early part of the 20th century.
The moderate led movement yielded no result. Prayers and petitions failed. The popular belief in constitutional methods lost value. A more radical and confrontational way was advocated. Thus extremists emerged out of an ideological confrontation.
The divisive tactics of the government had embittered the leaders. Its forced them to give up moderation. Assertion of rights, political agitations and fighting spirit were adopted. As a result the extremists took control of the situation and shaped the movement in their colour. Tilak, Lal lajpat Rai and Bipan Chandra Pal emerged as leaders.
The nature of extremists movement was best exhibited in their action. They gave the idea of independence the central place in politics. They bitterly opposed the English. They popularized the boycott of foreign goods. They harped on mass mobilization through public meetings. History was reviewed to draw heroic inspirations and self sacrifice. Religious festivals were used to further political propaganda. Reassertion of national dignity, honour and confidence was focused us on. Swadeshi and Swaraj were the catchword with the extremists. National schools and Swadeshi industries were established by extremist leaders. They took care to touch the heart of the masses.
Emergence of extremist leaders shaped the Congress as a mass based organization. Its programme were successful and able to draw people towards. It changed the character of movement for freedom. It focused on freedom. It focused on freedom as the ultimate goal.