Invasion of Alexander


Alexander crossed the Indus in 326 BC. After defeating the fierce tribes of the north-west, he encountered two powerful kings, Ambhi and Porus. Ambhi, the king of Taxila, sent a mission to Alexander, offering to help him if his own kingdom was spared. Porus, whoever, decide to oppose the Macedonian and the battle of Hydaspes (Ravi) was fought on the banks of river Jhelum. Greek sources mention that Porus was defeated but was restored t his dominion as a vassal of Alexander. Alexander wanted to continue his advance but his soldiers mutinied and refused to go beyond river Hyphasis (beas) and thus, he had to retreat.

Alexander died in Babylonia in 323 BC. After his death, most of the Macedonians returned home by 316 BC. Though Alexander’s stay in India was brief, it was an important influence. By curbing the fierce tribes who inhabited the hills and passes of North-West India, he paved the way for the rise of a united empire under the Mauryas. Alexander’s campaign opened up and reinforced a number of trade routes between North-Western India, via Afghanistan and Iran to Asia minor and to the ports along the eastern Mediterranean.

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