What were the circumstances that led to the partition of India in 1947?

The British policy of ‘divide and rule’ resulted in partition of India. It began with the British recognition to the Muslim separatism in 1909, ie the British introduction of separate electorate for the Muslims.

Communalism in India was fanned by subtle efforts of the Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha (1915). Sudhi and Sangathan movements among the Hindus gave strength and popularity to it. The Hindu-Muslim unity broke down in 199, forever.

It in the Allahabad session of the Leauge (1930), the idea of  a separate state was presented. During 1930-32, the period of Round Table Conferences, a group of young Muslims, led by Rehmat Ali, coined ‘Pakistan’ as a geographical expression of a future Muslim state.

The poor performance of the Muslim league in 1937 election put its existence in danger. So it used religion to counterweight the mass appeal of the Congress. Islam is in danger, was the cry. In 1940, in its Lahore session the League officially demanded Pakistan.

The fanatical and separatist politics of the league found expression in observance of ‘Direct Action Day’ on the 16th August 1946. Communal carnage, and large-scale killing brought the nation to the brink of a civil war. The league adopted non-cooperation within and outside the interim government. It boycotted the Constituent Assembly. It was not ready to accept anything less than ‘Pakistan’.

The events that were responsible for partition began in 1909 and had all its horrific end on 14th August 1947 with the creation of ‘Pakistan’.

June 1, 2016

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